Mahadevi Verma (26 March 1907 – 11 September 1987) was a Hindi poet, freedom fighter, woman's rights activist and educationist from India. She is widely regarded as the "modern Meera". She was a major poet of the Chhayavaad, a literary movement of romanticism in modern Hindi poetry ranging from 1914–1938 and a prominent poet in Hindi Kavi sammelans (Gatherings of poets).
She was the Principal, and then the Vice-Chancellor of Prayag Mahila Vidyapeeth, a woman's residential college in Allahabad.
Early life and education
Mahadevi Verma was born on 26 March 1907 in Farukhabad into an orthodox family.
Her marriage was arranged and conducted when she was nine years old, in 1916; however, she remained at her parental home and continued her education at Crossthwaite Girls' School in Allahabad. At this school, she also met fellow student Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, who would later go on to become a prominent Hindi writer and poet, like Verma herself. She stayed with her parents while her husband studied in Lucknow to complete his education, during which time, she received her higher education at the Allahabad University and passed her B.A.examination in 1929 and completed her master's degree-M.A. in Sanskrit in 1933.
Mahadevi was originally admitted to a Convent school, but upon protests and an unwilling attitude, she took admission in Crosthwaite Girls College in Allahabad. According to Mahadevi, she learnt the strength of unity in the hostel at Crosthwaite, where students of different religions lived together and the mess was also according to the religious requirement. Mahadevi started to write poems secretly; but upon discovery of her hidden stash of poems by her roommate and senior Subhadra Kumari Chauhan (known in the school for writing poems), her hidden talent was exposed. Mahadevi and Subhrada now started to write poems together in their free time.
While others used to play outside, me and Subhadra used to sit on a tree, and let our creative thoughts flow together...She used to write in Khariboli, and soon I also started to write in Khariboli...this way, we used to write one or two poems a day...
— Mahadevi Varma, Mere Bachpan Ke Din
She and Subhrada also used to send poems to publications such as weekly magazines, and managed to get some of their poems published. Both poets also attended poetry seminars, where they met eminent Hindi poets, and read out their poems to the audience. This partnership continued till Subhrada graduated from Crosthwaite.
In her childhood biography Mere Bachpan Ke Din (My Childhood Days), Mahadevi Verma has written that at a time when a girl child was considered a burden upon the family, she was very fortunate to be born into a liberal family. Her grandfather reportedly had the ambition of making her a scholar; although he insisted that she comply with tradition and marry at the age of nine, her mother was fluent in Sanskrit and Hindi, and very religious.Mahadevi credits her mother for inspiring her to write poems, and to take an interest in literature.
Following her graduation in 1929, Mahadevi Verma refused to comply with tradition and live with her husband, Dr Swarup Narain Verma; she even unsuccessfully tried to convince him to remarry. She is reported to have considered becoming a Buddhist nun but eventually chose not to, although she studied Buddhist Pali and Prakrit texts as part of her master's degree.
In 1930 Varma began teaching at village schools around Allahabad. Although she did not actively participate in political activities, particularly in Gandhian civil disobedience campaigns in Allahabad at this time, she adopted Gandhian ideals, including giving up speaking in English, and dressing primarily in khadi. She was appointed as the first headmistress of Allahabad (Prayag) Mahila Vidyapeeth in 1933, a private college which was started with a view to imparting cultural and literary education to girls through the Hindi medium. Later, she became the chancellor of this institute. During her time at the Prayag Mahila Vidyapeeth, she organised several conferences of poets, or Kavi Sammelans, as well as a conference for writers of short stories (Galpa Sammelan) in 1936, that was presided over by writer Sudakshina Varma.
She also continued to write extensively while teaching, including editorials for the Hindi magazine Chand, which she contributed to, edited, and also illustrated. In her editorials she surveyed Hindi literature, especially literature by women, and argued for women writers to have greater confidence in the value of their literary contributions. These editorials were later collected and published in a volume titled Srinkhala ke Kariyan (The Links of Our Chains) in 1942.
After the death of her husband in 1966, she moved permanently to Allahabad and lived there until her death.
Mahadevi is considered to be one of the four major poets of the Chhayavaadi school of the Hindi literature, others being Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Jaishankar Prasad and Sumitranandan Pant. She drew a number of illustrations for her poetic works like Yama. One of her other works is Neelkanth which talks about her experience with a peacock, which is included as a chapter into the syllabus of Central Board of Secondary Education for 7th graders. She has also written Gaura which is based on her real life, in this story she wrote about a beautiful cow. Mahadevi Verma is also known for her childhood memoir, Mere Bachpan Ke Din and Gillu, which was inducted into the syllabus of India's Central Board of Secondary Education for the 9th grade.In addition, her poem "Madhur Madhur Mere Deepak Jal" is a part of CBSE curricullum(Hindi-B) for 10th grade.
What arrests us in Mahadevi's work is the striking originality of the voice and the technical ingenuity which enabled her to create in her series of mostly quite short lyrics throughout her five volumes a consistently evolving representation of total subjectivity measured against the vastness of cosmic nature with nothing, as it were, intervening—no human social relationships, no human activities beyond those totally metaphorical ones involving weeping, walking the road, playing the vina, etc.
— David Rubin, The Return of Sarasvati: Four Hindi Poets
Sahitya Akademi fellows
|Ananda Coomaraswamy Fellowship|
- ^Mahadevi Verma: Modern Meera
- ^"Mahadevi Varma: The woman who began the era of romanticism in Hindi literature".
- ^ abcdefghijkTharu, Susie J.; Lalita, Ke (1991-01-01). Women Writing in India: 600 B.C. to the early twentieth century. Feminist Press at CUNY. pp. 459–469. ISBN 9781558610279.
- ^Rubin, David. The Return of Sarasvati: Four Hindi Poets. Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 150.
- ^Rubin, David. The Return of Sarasvati: Four Hindi Poets. Oxford University Press, 1993, p. 153.
- ^ ab"Padma Awards"(PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original(PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved July 21, 2015.
- ^"SAHITYA AKADEMI FELLOWSHIP". Sahitya Akademi. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- ^"JNANPITH LAUREATES". Bharatiya Jnanpith. Retrieved 19 February 2018.
नीलांबर परिधान हरित तट पर सुन्दर है।
सूर्य-चन्द्र युग मुकुट, मेखला रत्नाकर है॥
नदियाँ प्रेम प्रवाह, फूल तारे मंडन हैं।
बंदीजन खग-वृन्द, शेषफन सिंहासन है॥
करते अभिषेक पयोद हैं, बलिहारी इस वेष की।
हे मातृभूमि! तू सत्य ही, सगुण मूर्ति सर्वेश की॥
जिसके रज में लोट-लोट कर बड़े हुये हैं।
घुटनों के बल सरक-सरक कर खड़े हुये हैं॥
परमहंस सम बाल्यकाल में सब सुख पाये।
जिसके कारण धूल भरे हीरे कहलाये॥
हम खेले-कूदे हर्षयुत, जिसकी प्यारी गोद में।
हे मातृभूमि! तुझको निरख, मग्न क्यों न हों मोद में?
पा कर तुझसे सभी सुखों को हमने भोगा।
तेरा प्रत्युपकार कभी क्या हमसे होगा?
तेरी ही यह देह, तुझी से बनी हुई है।
बस तेरे ही सुरस-सार से सनी हुई है॥
फिर अन्त समय तू ही इसे अचल देख अपनायेगी।
हे मातृभूमि! यह अन्त में तुझमें ही मिल जायेगी॥
निर्मल तेरा नीर अमृत के से उत्तम है।
शीतल मंद सुगंध पवन हर लेता श्रम है॥
षट्ऋतुओं का विविध दृश्ययुत अद्भुत क्रम है।
हरियाली का फर्श नहीं मखमल से कम है॥
शुचि-सुधा सींचता रात में, तुझ पर चन्द्रप्रकाश है।
हे मातृभूमि! दिन में तरणि, करता तम का नाश है॥
सुरभित, सुन्दर, सुखद, सुमन तुझ पर खिलते हैं।
भाँति-भाँति के सरस, सुधोपम फल मिलते है॥
औषधियाँ हैं प्राप्त एक से एक निराली।
खानें शोभित कहीं धातु वर रत्नों वाली॥
जो आवश्यक होते हमें, मिलते सभी पदार्थ हैं।
हे मातृभूमि! वसुधा, धरा, तेरे नाम यथार्थ हैं॥
क्षमामयी, तू दयामयी है, क्षेममयी है।
सुधामयी, वात्सल्यमयी, तू प्रेममयी है॥
विभवशालिनी, विश्वपालिनी, दुःखहर्त्री है।
भय निवारिणी, शान्तिकारिणी, सुखकर्त्री है॥
हे शरणदायिनी देवि, तू करती सब का त्राण है।
हे मातृभूमि! सन्तान हम, तू जननी, तू प्राण है॥
जिस पृथ्वी में मिले हमारे पूर्वज प्यारे।
उससे हे भगवान! कभी हम रहें न न्यारे॥
लोट-लोट कर वहीं हृदय को शान्त करेंगे।
उसमें मिलते समय मृत्यु से नहीं डरेंगे॥
उस मातृभूमि की धूल में, जब पूरे सन जायेंगे।
होकर भव-बन्धन- मुक्त हम, आत्म रूप बन जायेंगे॥